Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan and the largest economic and cultural centre of the country. At various stages of its long history, Tashkent was known as Shash, Chachkent, Shashkent and Binket. The name "Tashkent" is first mentioned in the works of Abu-Raikhon Beruni and Mahmud Kashgari (11th century). Tashkent is the Uzbek word for "stone town". How can we explain this name if in the construction of the city stone was rarely used? It was the hardness of the inhabitants more than once protecting their city from attacks of invaders that was compared by local people with a stone. The territory of Tashkent makes up 260 square km. Tashkent is located in the north-east of Uzbekistan, in the picturesque valley of the Chirchik River which takes its source from the spurs of the Tian-Shan, at the height of 440-480 metres above the sea level. In clear weather snowy peaks of the Tian-Shan Mountains are visible. More than 2.3 million reside in the capital (approximately, 10% of population of the country). The architecture of Tashkent is characterised by the mixture of modern and traditional styles of buildings. There is a green city with lots of fountains and parks. The vicinities of present day Tashkent record their chronology back to the 5th century BC. It had passed through successive hands of numerous ruling clans. Its vivid record is mentioned through the 7th century AD from the Scythians, the Sassanids and the Ephtalites. A more authentic picture of Tashkent was drawn with the invasion of Arabs in the 8th century. The city grew into an important trading post on the Great Silk Road, from China to the Mediterranean countries, when it was busting with commerce. As it was described in the annals there had been beautiful palaces among green gardens, temples and streets of craftsmen. In the capital craftsmen were engaged in metal processing, weaving cotton and woollen clothes, manufacturing of weapons, ceramics, jewellery. It saw different dynasties of rules of which the prominent were the Samanids in the 9th century and the Karakhanids in the 10th - 11th centuries. The invasion of the Mongol hordes in the 13th century brought a short delay in the development of Tashkent. This continued until history reverted to the turbulent path of the later Genghisids and the grand Timurid dynasties (the 14th - 15th centuries) when Tashkent got its importance of a strong fortress. Its territory was extended, manufacture, trade, culture developed. In the 16th century the city was once more ransacked by an invader from the north – Shaybanid Khan, leader of the nomadic Uzbek Turks, who were to give their name to the whole region. Tashkent adapted to this new ruler and built up its wealth again. The city was the part of the State of Shaybanids as an independent principality of one of them, Suyunidj khan. During this period extensive building works had been carried out. Monumental buildings as mausoleums, mosques, madrasahs appeared. In the next centuries there were three states on the territory of Central Asia: the Bukhara Emirate, the Khiva and Kokand Khanates. Tashkent passed from hand to hand, from one khanate to another. In the second half of the 18th century Tashkent was attached to the Bukhara Khanate. In the early 19th century the Khan of Kokand conquered city. At that time due to growing commerce with Russia Tashkent turned into a prosperous trading city, one of the largest cities in the region.

In the 19th century Tashkent was a Central Asian centre of trade with Russia. Looking for new markets, the Russians regarded Tashkent as the strategic key to Central Asia. In 1865 the Tsarist army captured Tashkent and the city as well as all Turkestan became the constituent of the Russian Empire. In 1867 the Governorate General of Turkestan with the administrative centre in Tashkent was formed. At the end of the 19th century Tashkent was roughly divided into an old Asian and new Russian towns. After the Bolshevik revolution in 1918 the Republic of Turkestan was proclaimed. In 1930 Tashkent became the capital of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1991 Tashkent is the capital of Independent Republic of Uzbekistan.

Broadway  - Saligokh Street


Tashkent City tour 01 - Half-day
The History Museum of the Peoples of Uzbekistan, the biggest of Tashkent's museums, contains 8,000 exhibits. The archaeological findings displayed in the museum, present the life of the peoples of Central Asia as well as the life of Uzbek people from ancient times up to the modern age. The main city square Mustakillik (Independence Square) is an administrative and political centre of the city, where most of celebrations, national holidays take place.

Visit to the old city
Khazret Imam Square, is ancient square of the 16th century, locating the Kaffal Shashi Mausoleum, the Barak Khan Madrasah, Namazgokh Mosque and the Tillya Sheikh Mosque. Kaffal Shashi Mausoleum of the 16th century is a mausoleum of one of the first imams of Muslim world, who lived from 904 to 979 AD. Barak Khan Madrasah was constructed in the middle of the 16th century by the order of Barak Khan, the son of Suyunidj Khan, a founder of Tashkent Shaybanid dynasty. Nowadays it houses Muslim Religious Board of Uzbekistan, the administrative centre of the Mufti of Uzbekistan. Tillya Sheikh Mosque (constructed in 1902) is a functioning mosque possessing a rich Islamic library with ancient manuscripts. The highlight of the library is the immense Osman Koran, one of the world's oldest copies (1200 years old). Namazgokh Mosque built in the middle of the 19th century, now it houses the Imam Ismail Al-Bukhari Islamic Institute. The Square "Chorsu" is the centre of an ancient Tashkent. It appeared in the 11th century and was a four-road junction, a place of trade. The Kukeldash Madrasah, located on the square Chorsu, was built in the 16th century in the reign of the Shaybanid dynasty, under the leadership of Kulbodo Kukeldash - the vizier. Now it is a primary school, where the basics of Islam are taught. The Juma (Friday) Mosque, nearby the Kukeldash Madrasah was erected in the middle of the 15th century by influential Islamic leader Khodja Akhrar (1404-1492). "Chorsu" bazaar - on the right of the square Chorsu, is the oldest city market, which was rebuilt according to the ancient style. It is picturesque, noisy and full of local colour.

Tashkent City tour 02 - Half-day
The Amir Timur Museum, the newest Tashkent's museum is quite an impressive structure with blue ribbed dome and a richly decorated interior. Most of the displays are the models of Timur's and Timurids greatest building projects. The Amir Timur Square is the centre of what was once known as the "new Russian city”. It appeared in 1883, when the Russians first settled in Tashkent. Since then the Square has always reflected the ruling government’s policy at that time. At present a gigantic statue of Amir Timur (1336-1405) mounted on a horse stands in the centre of the square. However, it was not always so. Earlier to him the statue of Karl Marx and before him Joseph Stalin occupied the place. But it all started with the statue of Constantine Kaufmann who was the first Russian Governor of Turkestan. The Theatre Square with the building of Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre is the city’s cultural centre. The architecture of the theatre, constructed in 1947, combines the European and oriental styles. The Museum of Applied Arts was founded in 1937. One of the main attractions of the museum is the house itself, decorated in traditional 19th century Uzbek style. The collection of the museum has on display items made by three generations of craftsmen and covering the entire range of folk art, plus items of the arts industry. The Square of Friendship with a monument of the same name in front of the Palace of People's Friendship is a modern cultural city square. The Abdul Kassim Madrasah, built in the beginning of the 19th century is on the territory of the National Alisher Navoi Park. The cells of madrasah are occupied by craft workshops.

Tashkent City tour 03 - Half-day
The Fine Arts Museum of Uzbekistan displays a fine collection of art of different epochs. Visitors can see the Zoroastrian artifacts, 1000-year-old Buddhist statues, and Sogdian mural as well as 19th and 20th century items. Tashkent Metro is the only underground system of Central Asia with beautifully decorated stations. The monument "Courage" is remembrance of the earthquake of 1966.


Excursion to Ensemble Zanghi-Ata (14-19 centuries) - Half-day
A half-day excursion to visit a sacred place, now known as Zanghi-Ata. It is situated nearby Tashkent on the old caravan route. This ensemble is a monument of urban art and architecture of different periods of medieval epoch and associated with the name of Amir Timur.

Excursion to Chimgan - Full day
A full-day excursion to a mountain resort called Chimgan. It is situated on the south shore of the Charvak Reservoir, 80 km from Tashkent in the western region of the Tian-Shan mountain range. It is popular in spring and summer for its fresh air and picturesque landscape, mountains covered with green grass and blooming trees. During winter it is renowned as a favourite ski resort.

Farmers Markets and Bazaars in Tashkent
Chorsu Bazaar
The Old Town has retained much of its old charm. Here you will find low adobe houses with shady courtyards, narrow winding streets and many ancient mosques and madressas. Chorsu Bazaar (Tashkent's farmers market under a huge cupola, spices, grain, dairy products, fruits of the season), (Southern edge of the old town. Chorsu Metro.). Here you can encounter the hustle and bustle of everyday life in Central Asia and you will have a good chance to see people in the colourful local dress. 
Oloy Bazar
Kyuluk Bazaar
Chilanzar (Hippodrome) Bazaar
Yangiobod Weekend Flea Market

Yangiobod Weekend Flea Market

Markets are always the throbbing heart of any urbanism, and none more so than the Sunday flea market in the Yangiobod area of Tashkent, the weekend flea-market,  one of the most famous "flea bazaars" (second hand market) of the former Soviet Union. .It is open only on weekends and located in the outskirts of the capital.
You can find anything there 'from nails to nukes', and do travel there. The market is enormous, maybe a few square kilometers in size. There is a variety of people on display - not well-dressed main street types but the common people of Tashkent, and the ex-Soviet stuff on view. You can find an ancient optical stuff from the 1960s and a bewildering variety of medals, many bookshops. The flea market would be a must for bargain-hunters and antique-seekers - be prepared to bargain hard. Anything from toilets and potted plants to dismembered fridges, second-hand books and pets were laid out on the streets for sale, and if you were lucky you could sometimes buy back your own, previously stolen, property. Visitors of this market were divided into two groups. The first - the ones who were familiar with the market and the second - the ones that come here before sunrise, armed with a flashlight hunting for the most real rarities. Unique things here can be bought at a price that is hundreds or even thousands of times cheaper than the real price.
-    Abdulkasim Medressah
-    Ensemble Khazret Imam
-    Kukeldash Medressa   
-    Old Town   
-    Khavendi Takhur Sheikh Mausoleum
-    Kaldyrgach-bly Mausoleum
-    Yunus Khan Mausoleum
-    Mausoleum of Abubakr Muhammad Kaffal Shashi
-    Mausoleum of Zainuddin-bobo Sheikh
-    Architectural Complex Zengi-Ata

-    History Museum of the People of Uzbekistan (Tu-Su 10AM until 5PM, closed Mon)
-    Fine Arts Museum of Uzbekistan (M 10AM to 2PM, W-Su 10AM unto 5PM, closed Tue)
-    Museum of Applied Arts (daily 9AM until 6PM)
-    Amur Timur Museum (Tu-Su 10AM until 5PM, closed Mon)
-    Navoy Literary Museum (M-F 10AM until 5PM, Sa 10AM until 1PM, closed Sun)
-    Art Gallery of Uzbekistan (Tu-Sa 11AM until 5PM, closed Sun and Mon)
-    Tashkent Gallery of Modern Art

-    Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theater (classical ballet and opera)
-    Ilkhom Theatre
-    Uzbek National  Dramatic Theatre

-    Mustaqilik (Independence Square)
-    Tashkentland, (Near Aqua park, not far from Tashkent TV tower). An amusement park
-    Monument of Courage of earthquake on 26th April 1966
-    Amir Temur Monument and Museum in the Amir Timur park
-    Japanese Garden
-    Boghi Eram Recreation Park
-    War memorial eternal flame on 9th May (Victory day) and park has the names of all the fallen Victims of 2nd world war
-    Tashkent TV Tower Viewing levels and restaurants with views of the city    
-    Brothers Tombs is the place to pay homage to the victims of 2nd world War   

Adventure Sports
-    Hiking / Trekking in the Chimgan, Beldersay
Broadway  - Saligokh Street
Saligokh St, known locally as "Broadway", has some street artists, etc. The street is easy to find from the Amir Temur Monument, just head away from the Uzbekistan Hotel. Recently, modern designer fashion and shops selling luxury goods from famous international brands have started to appear in Tashkent. Catering for the wealthy, these can be found in the Broadway area, on Amir Temur Street and Pushkin Street.

-    Abdulkasym Madrassah. Lacquer paintings with oriental motifs.
-    Rakhimov Ceramics Studio
-    Chorsu bazaar
-    Souvenir Shops at Museum of Applied Arts   
-    Human House   
-    Caravan Art Gallery

- Samarkand Darbaza
- Next
- Mega Planet
- Korzinka
- Kontinent

The most popular restaurants, café and chaiykhana in Tashkent
-    Al-Aziz (Uzbek, European)
-    Caravan (Uzbek, European)
-    Manas Art-café( Kyrgyz, oriental)
-    Central Asian Plov Centre
-    Café National Food
-    Jumanji (Fusion, European)
-    Labi Hovuz (Uzbek)
-    Sim Sim Café(Uzbek, European)
-    Bek Café(Uzbek, European)
-    Marmaris Gourmet(Turkish, European)
-    Tamri (Georgian)
-    Nur (Uzbek, European)
-    Café Dustlar (Uzbek, European)
-    Bistro Bek (Uzbek, European)
-    Café Samdi (Uzbek plov of Samarkand)
-    Tea house DODA
-    Tea house Abdurashid Ota
-    Tea house Bokserka
-    Tea house Charkh – Kamolon
-    Tea house Bog Kucha
-    Tea house Sukok – Parkent

Tashkent Province
A week-end to spend in Tashkent? Waiting for your flight back home with time to spare? Looking for a day trip with your kids? Then Tashkent Province is where you should turn to. We will take you on a tour to the sites no one knew of within a radius of 80km max of Tashkent city center. Part I takes you to the Southern region of Tashkent province, towards the foothills of the Tjen Shan Mountains. Rolling hills, golden wheat fields, sunflowers as far as the eye stretches, grazing cows, quaint villages and last but not least, vineyards that produce some of the famous red  and white wines of Uzbekistan. The drive beyond Tashkent Golf Club is most scenic, whether along country lanes or along the main road to the Ferghana Valley.

No, you have not driven straight into the 23rd century, though this site may well have you believe so. You are standing in front of one of the world's few Astrophysical Solar Furnaces whose 62 staggered heliostats reflect the skies many times over though their purpose is of course not to mirror the clouds but to capture sun rays at the optimal angle which is below a 1 degree error margin in order to conduct solar research and to create the highest possible temperatures in a perfect ecologic manner for the production of, and here we site the website "multifunction ceramics (high temperature heaters, thermocouple, transformers, gas burners); - constructive ceramics (printing circuit board, tubes, ferrules, cutting tools); - fire proof ceramics (elements for ceramic engines, restorative surfaces); - optical, superconductivity and other types of ceramic materials for electronics, chemistry and other fields". This complicated optomechanical complex and the institute have been established in 1994.

Astrophysical Solar Furnaces

By the time you have driven further South and have just about recovered from your high-tech experience, get ready to make a left turn as you utter the word "Champagne". Indeed, that is where you will find yourself, in a village where in 1915 French Winemakers fell for the fine quality of local grapes, remarking how closely these resembled the grapes from the French Champagne region. Rows upon rows of trellised wines yield about 180 tons of grapes each year. From the time a seedling is planted to harvesting its fruits takes 4 years. Farmers are solely reliant on rain for irrigation The hills behind Krasnagorsk are a favorite of "nomadic" honey producers throughout the summer. Their movable bee-hives are parked along the road in flower filled fields, the air, otherwise without a sound, is buzzing as you approach. Often, 1l glass jars with fresh honey are sold right off the wagon.

A wine excursion can be organized  to the “Hamkor” winery is located in Namdanak Settlement, Parkent District, at 800 meters above sea level, about one-hour’s drive from Tashkent. Here, one of the best chateaus in Uzbekistan operates since 1992. The farm vineyard occupy about 250 ha of land. Not only grapes are cultivated and made into wine here, but also a product bottling line is run. As the organizers of the excursion told, a visit to “Hamkor” vineyards and winery will be supplemented with horse-rides to the nearby beautiful site and photo sessions in national costumes as well as lunch will be organized with tasting the best wines for tourists. With time, wine excursions may turn into an excellent supplement to the classic tours of Uzbekistan.

Wine field of Parkent

This thoroughfare on the way to Kokand and the Ferghana Valley certainly doesn't count "charming' among the words to describe it. However, two, three points of interest could make this a stop over on a long drive. The Museum shows displays from the Stone Age through to the present. The miniature showcases on early settlements and the coal mine have been modeled with great care and love for details. Several maps give you an overview over the pre-historic sites of the area Hand made reed furniture is produced by a very nice husband and wife managed small enterprise. Woven baskets and trays make for nice and useful home accessories or gifts and the range of chairs and tables is ever expanding, as they are eager to experiment with new styles Turn left off the main road at the GEOLOG sign and follow the track up to the mine and around the 270 degree bend until you see the lake on your left side. From here a foot path leads past the farm through meadows with striking Central Asian alpine flowers in spring and early summer to a rock face with petrogrlyphs. Climb up to have a closer look at them, even with kids it is not dangerous. You can continue your hike down to the lake.

On the way from Angren to the Ferghana Valley